Chromosome - 3 SNP - rs11708067 Gene Name - ADCY5

Basic Information

Genotype Frequency
  • AA
  • AG
  • GG
  • --
Allele Frequency
  • A
  • G
  • -

SNP Expression Description

How does this fit in to your daily life?

For more information, please schedule a consult with one of our HealthCoach7 Genetic Specialist.

General SNP Description

Mutations in this SNP is associated with elevated fasting glucose levels, reduced birthweight, as well as a risk for Type 2 Diabetes. In addition to that, other research has shown that a mutation in this SNP is associated with a defective proinsulin to insulin conversion. Proinsulin is the pro-hormone  to insulin made in the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans, which are specialized regions of the pancreas. Proinsulin/insulin ratio has to be balanced to sustain body homeostasis, since a higher proinsulin/insulin ratio is an early sign of Beta-cell dysfunction, and accompanied with other factors could signify a later onset of Type 2 Diabetes. Another research article has associated the introduction or removal of a CpG island, which may be a mechanism through which this SNP can affect gene function through differential DNA methylation and consequently contributes to the phenotype of Type 2 Diabetes. After clinical examinations researchers found that homocysteine levels were exceptionally high in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes as compared to individuals without the disease. Homocysteine is an intermediate that is responsible for maintaing methylation reactions in critical metabolic processes and it can be re-methylated to form methionine, which is an initiation codon for amino acids to be translated or made into proteins. When a person is depleted of sulfur the body uses methionine in order to be made into cysteine. Methionine directly affects S-adenosyl methionine levels, thus when methionine is decreased S-adenosyl methionine levels are also decreased. A person’s body needs S-adenosyl methionine since it provides methyl groups for DNA methylation. Lack of S-adenosyl methionine leads to an inability to develop proper methylation patterns, and is thought to be an indicator for an increased risk for developing Type 2 Diabetes. This SNP is one of the plasma glucose-increasing polymorphisms and in general non-fasting glucose elevation is associated with a risk for Ischemic Heart Disease(IHD) and Myocardial Infarction(MI) or heart attack. Ischemic Heart Disease is also known as Coronary Artery Disease and is the most common cause of heart attacks. IHD is caused by plaque building up along inner walls of arteries in the heart, which narrows the arteries and reduced blood flow to the heart. Reduced blood flow also causes ischemia or depletion of nutrients such as glucose to heart cells and reduced oxygen availability to heart cells, which eventually leads to cells dying off and when there is significant damage to that area of the heart this will lead to MI or heart attack. Fiber is one of the supplements that has been associated with a healthier heart. Naturally fiber is found in fruits, grains, vegetables, and legumes. It cuts down the amount of cholesterol that the body absorbs from food. Although it is best to get fiber from food sources, fiber supplements are an alternative. For instance, blond psyllium husk is a good source of dietary fiber and studies have shown that it is able to lower LDL cholesterol and raise HDL cholesterol thus increasing the ratio of HDL/LDL. HDL is high-density lipoprotein that transfer fats away from cells, artery walls and tissues through the bloodstream back to both LDL particles and liver for redistribution. Therefore, increasing the amount of HDL particles generally reduces the accumulation of atherosclerosis within artery walls within weeks, years and even decades. HDL also reduces, reuses, and recycles LDL back to the liver where it can be reprocessed. LDL is low-density lipoprotein and it usually collects within the artery walls causing blockages of atherosclerosis.Eventually atherosclerosis leads to sudden plaque ruptures triggering clots within the artery opening and therefore narrowing or closing the opening altogether, which can lead to cardiovascular disease, stroke, as well as other vascular complications throughout the body. Other supplements that help with maintaining a healthier heart include are phytosterols or plant based sterols and stanols. These compounds are found in small amounts in many nuts and grains and they help reduce the amount of cholesterol the body absorbs from food. Sterols and stanols are sold as supplements and are added to many foods such as margarine, yogurt, and orange juice. Garlic may help with heart health by lowering blood pressure and slowing down plaque build up in the arteries, lowering the risk for blood clots. In addition to that, green tea either as an extract or as a drink may increase HDL/LDL ratio by lowering LDL and increasing HDL and it may lower the risk for developing high blood pressure, although studies remain inconclusive on this. Enzyme CoQ10 is a key enzyme for normal cell function and may help lower blood pressure either on its own or along with other drugs. In addition to that, taking medications (statins) can lower cholesterol levels, but can sometimes lower natural levels of Enzyme CoQ10 and thus some doctors recommend taking it as a supplement to counteract this effect. Fish oil with omega-3 fatty acids can also reduce the amount of triglycerides, or unhealthy fat that can cause clots in the arteries, by up to 50%. In addition to that, fish oil can improve blood pressure. It is still unclear whether or not non-prescription fish oils supplements can help lower your risk of heart attack or stroke. Based on the current research available the best option is to eat fish and omega-3 fatty acids.

For more information, please schedule a consult with one of our HealthCoach7 Genetic Specialist.